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Imagine a future where computers are not just faster, but fundamentally different. Quantum computing, a revolutionary tool that harnesses the mind-bending powers of quantum mechanics, promises to solve problems beyond our imagination. This potential transformation in computing could reshape our understanding of technology and its capabilities.

Like everyone else, Nigerians use computers for almost everything. We use them to learn, communicate, have fun, and more. But what if computers could get a million times stronger? In this case, quantum computing is practical. Speed and power are like going from a motorbike to a rocket ship. We’ll discuss quantum computing, how it works, and why the future looks so bright today.

## What does quantum computing mean?

Quantum computing is a field within computer science that applies the ideas of quantum theory. Quantum computing employs subatomic particles, such as electrons or photons. Contemporary classical computers use bits, which can be either 0 or 1. In contrast, quantum computers use Quantum bits, also known as qubits, to enable the simultaneous existence of these particles in several states, such as 1 and 0.

Linked qubits have the potential to use the interference between their wave-like quantum states to carry out computations that would otherwise require an extensive amount of time, maybe millions of years. The cool thing is that qubits can be both 0 and 1 simultaneously. This is possible because of a strange rule in quantum physics called superposition.

### Do quantum computers exist?

Indeed, there are quantum computers, but they are still in the works and very different from the computers we use every day. At this point, quantum computers made by IBM, Google, and others have shown how quantum computing works using only a few qubits, which are quantum equivalents to traditional bits. These machines are kept in special rooms because they need very cold temperatures and exact conditions to work well.

While these early quantum computers may not yet outperform traditional computers in most tasks, they have demonstrated their ability to solve certain types of problems more efficiently. The journey towards fully harnessing the power of quantum computing is ongoing, with scientists and researchers worldwide working tirelessly to overcome technical challenges and make quantum computing more accessible and impactful in the future.

### What problems can quantum computers solve?

It’s possible that quantum computers could solve many problems faster than traditional computers. This is especially true when vast amounts of data must be handled, or complicated calculations must be done. Quantum computers should be very good at solving the following problems:

**Factorisation:**Quantum computers were able to quickly break down big numbers into their prime factors, which is a vital part of cryptography and decrypting codes.**Optimisation:**It’s possible that quantum computers can find the best answers to difficult optimisation problems like route planning, scheduling, and resource allocation much faster than traditional methods.**Simulation of Quantum Systems:**Classical computers find it challenging to model quantum systems like molecular structures and chemical reactions correctly. However, quantum computers are very good at simulating these systems.**Machine Learning and AI:**Quantum computers could improve machine learning systems by speeding up the training process and making it easier to spot patterns.**Cryptography:**Quantum computers can create new types of encryption that are almost impossible to break. This ensures the safety of deals and communications.

Those are just a few examples. As quantum computing technology improves, it will likely have more uses, which could affect areas like materials science, banking, and healthcare.

### What are quantum computers used for today?

At this point in time, quantum computers are primarily used for study and experiments rather than everyday tasks. Here are some of the critical uses and points of interest:

- Scientists are developing quantum algorithms that can solve complex problems faster than classical algorithms in the future.
- Researchers use quantum computers to study and model quantum systems, which helps them understand basic physics and chemistry.
- Researchers are still investigating ways to make cryptography less vulnerable to quantum computers and to make current encryption methods less vulnerable than quantum computers could use.
- Quantum computers are being tested on small-scale optimisation problems to demonstrate their ability to help people find better answers more quickly.
- Quantum computers are also used in schools to teach students and researchers about computing and quantum physics.

These uses are essential for progressing the field of quantum computing, but they are still in their early stages when it comes to being used in real life and for business. Quantum computers are currently limited by factors such as the number of qubits they can effectively use and the error rates in their operations. Companies and researchers are trying to solve these technical problems so that quantum computers can be used for real-world problems in the future.

## Who invented quantum computing?

Quantum computing was first proposed by physicist Richard Feynman in 1982 at a talk at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He discussed the difficulty of classical computers in modelling quantum systems and the possibility that a computer based on quantum mechanics could better do this. This was a significant moment in the history of computing, marking the beginning of a new era in which the strange and counterintuitive rules of quantum physics could be harnessed for practical purposes.

In the 1980s and 1990s, physicist David Deutsch laid out the formal theoretical principles of quantum computing. He came up with the idea of a universal quantum computer and showed how quantum principles could be used to perform calculations that traditional computers couldn’t.

Since then, a multitude of scientists and researchers have made significant contributions to the field of quantum computing. For instance, Peter Shor developed the renowned Shor’s algorithm for factoring large numbers, and Lov Grover created Grover’s algorithm for database searching. This collaborative effort is driving the advancement of quantum computing, with each contribution bringing us closer to unlocking its full potential.

### 3 fundamental principles of quantum mechanics relevant to computing

Let’s look at some critical quantum physics rules that allow quantum computers to work. Don’t worry, it will be easy!

**Superposition:**Qubits can be both 0 and 1 in a quantum computer. It’s like having a unique coin that can simultaneously show heads, tails, and both! This makes it possible for quantum computers to think through all the possible outcomes quickly.**Entanglement:**Think about two qubits joined together, even if they are far apart. This is called entanglement. As soon as one qubit changes, the other changes immediately. It’s like having twin superheroes who can see everything each other do. Because of this, quantum computers are powerful and can solve tough tasks.**Quantum tunnelling:**This lets qubits explore options that are hard for regular computers to get to. It’s like coming across a hidden way to go through a mountain instead of over it. This trick helps quantum computers figure things out a lot faster.

These ideas may seem strange, but they make quantum computers unique and exciting for the future. Scientists and inventors worldwide are exploring these ideas to create computers that can solve big problems more quickly than ever.

## Where quantum computing stands now

Let’s talk about where we are now with quantum computing. You could compare it to looking at a cool new gadget still being made.

- Scientists and businesses worldwide are building and testing it in labs. A few qubits are all these computers need to show what they can do, like run simple programmes or solve simple tasks.
- Keeping qubits stable and ensuring they work well together is a big task. Because they are so fragile, it’s very hard for qubits to stay in their superposition and linked states.
- Influential people in the game, such as IBM, Google, and other companies, are at the forefront of the study of quantum computing. They aim to make more robust quantum computers that can handle bigger jobs.
- Scientists are making the first forms of quantum computers in labs. These tools use a few qubits, which are like supercharged bits, to test the power of quantum mechanics.

Quantum computing is still very new, but it’s an exciting step towards a time when computers can do things we didn’t think were possible. Who knows? Nigeria could be a big part of the next big step that’s about to happen.

### Potential applications of quantum computing

Let us look into how quantum computing could make the world a better place for everyone:

- Quantum computers can do maths much faster than standard ones. This could help experts determine how to make better weather predictions, develop new medicines, or even understand complicated molecules.
- Storing information online is safer because quantum computers can break codes that standard computers can’t. They could also help make very safe transmission networks.
- Quantum computers may make AI much more potent by teaching algorithms more quickly. Robots, virtual assistants, and forecasts could all get more intelligent because of this.
- They could help model complicated environmental processes, allowing us to find new ways to fight climate change and use energy more efficiently.

These apps could lead to better healthcare, safer cyberspace, and more efficient businesses. Quantum computing does more than just speed up computers. It also helps us solve the world’s biggest problems in new and exciting ways.

### Challenges and limitations of quantum computing

Many good things can come from quantum computing, but there are some big problems to solve first:

- Qubits are delicate. To work correctly, they must be in very cold and still conditions. It’s hard to keep them stable long enough to do important things.
- Quantum computers often make mistakes. Anything as small as a vibration or change in temperature can throw off their estimates. They are trying hard to find easy ways to fix these mistakes.
- Quantum computers currently have only a few qubits. More than a few hundred qubits working together are needed to solve huge tasks, and it takes a lot of work to get there technically.
- Building and running quantum computers is very expensive and challenging. They also require specialised tools and knowledge, which not all places have.

Scientists in Nigeria and around the world are working hard to make quantum computing a reality, even though there are problems. If these problems are solved, science and technology could go in excellent new directions.

## Future of quantum computing

Quantum computing could have huge effects on the world in the future:

- Think about computers that can quickly solve problems, which generally take years. Scientists can do things we can’t even imagine as they make quantum computers bigger and better.
- With the help of quantum computers, we might be able to find new medicines, learn more about the world, and solve big mysteries in science and technology.
- Qubit machines could one day be a part of our everyday lives. They could make our phones smarter, our online shopping better, and the way our towns work better.
- Quantum computing could dramatically change Nigeria’s economy, health care, and other fields. It might help us address significant problems like energy loss and climate change.
- Quantum computers might be able to break the codes that protect our information. We need to devise new ways to keep our data safe and ensure that only the right people can see it.
- Like any new technology, quantum computing could change the types of jobs that are offered. It might create new tech and science jobs but also modify or eliminate some jobs.
- Countries are racing to be the best at quantum computing, a global competition. Africa needs to keep up with the times and use this technology to help everyone, not just a few.

## What is an example of quantum computing?

Quantum computing can solve hard math questions that regular computers have trouble with. It can quickly break down big numbers into their prime factors, which is essential for cryptography and safe communication. Quantum computers have the potential to be very useful in real life because they can do math much faster than regular computers.

## What is the difference between AI and quantum computing?

AI (Artificial Intelligence) and quantum computing are both very advanced areas of technology. Still, they are used for different things and work in different ways, as shown in the table below:

AI | Quantum computing | |

Reason for existence and use | AI aims to create robots that can do things that generally require human intelligence, such as finding patterns in data, making decisions, and learning from mistakes. | Quantum computing uses ideas from quantum physics to make computations much faster and more powerful than those that can be done with regular computers. Traditional computer methods can’t handle the kind of problems that this tries to solve. |

Computational approach | AI systems use enormous amounts of data to train models and make predictions. They run on regular computers, like the ones we use every day. | Quantum computers use quantum bits (qubits) to calculate and employ ideas like superposition and entanglement. These computers can handle vast amounts of data at once and solve some kinds of problems much faster than regular computers. |

Applications | AI is used in many areas, including healthcare (to diagnose diseases), finance (to find scams), self-driving cars, and customer service (chatbots). | This type of computing could be used in cryptography (to make codes that can’t be broken), drug discovery (to model complicated molecules), solving optimisation problems (like logistics and route planning), and simulating quantum systems (to study things like materials and chemical reactions). |

How expensive is a quantum computer?

At the moment, it costs a lot to build and run a quantum computer. The price changes greatly depending on the system’s complexity, the number of qubits used, and the technology used. Some general things to know about the price:

**Research and development:**Research and development on a quantum computer require a lot of money. This includes creating complex control systems, building new qubit architectures, and producing specialised hardware.**Equipment:**Quantum computers need special equipment to work well. This includes superconducting materials, devices that keep temperatures very low (near absolute zero), and shielded environments that keep sensitive qubits safe from outside interference.**Costs of operation:**Quantum computers need to be kept in controlled settings and run by experienced professionals. Maintenance, electricity for cooling systems, and ongoing improvements to improve the system are all part of the operating costs.- Scaling up: As scientists try to make quantum computers that are bigger, faster, and have more qubits, the costs keep increasing because they need to get more complicated and use new technology.

While exact costs can vary greatly, it’s thought that even small quantum computers can cost millions of dollars to build and run. This high cost is currently a major obstacle to the general use and commercialization of quantum computing technology.

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## How much RAM does a quantum computer have?

RAM (Random Access Memory) is not the same in quantum computers as in regular computers. In older computers, RAM stores information that the processor needs to access quickly.

Like classical bits in quantum mechanics, Qubits are used to store and handle information in quantum computers. Quantum computers can do complicated calculations simultaneously because qubits can be entangled with each other and in more than one state simultaneously (superposition).

Because of this, quantum computers don’t use RAM as we usually think in computers. Instead, they change the quantum states of qubits to perform operations. Memory and storage are thought of in quantum computing very differently than in everyday computing.

## What is the speed of a quantum computer?

Quantum computers can do some kinds of math much faster than regular computers, but it’s not easy to figure out how fast they are in the same way that regular computers’ speed is. This is why:

- Quantum computers are good at searching large databases, factoring big numbers, and modelling quantum systems. Quantum algorithms, such as Grover’s algorithm for search and Shor’s algorithm for factoring, can make these jobs much faster than the most well-known classical algorithms.
- A quantum computer’s speed is affected by the amount of qubits it has, how well those qubits work (how long they can stay in their quantum state), and the algorithm being run. Today, Small quantum computers can do some jobs faster than regular computers, but their speed is limited by the number of qubits and how well they can be controlled and manipulated.
- Quantum computers are generally not faster than regular computers at all jobs. Classical computers are still better for everyday jobs, like processing text and graphics and doing general calculations.

To sum up, quantum computers could solve some kinds of problems exponentially faster, but their overall speed and performance rely on how they are built, the algorithms they use, and the technology’s progress. Scientists are working to make quantum computing as useful as possible so that it can solve hard problems faster than ever.

### Conclusion

Quantum computing can change how we solve complex problems and comprehend the world around us. Even though they are still in their early stages, quantum computers have shown that they can perform tasks faster than any classical computer.

Quantum computing has a wide range of potential uses in the future, from advancing scientific study and healthcare to improving cybersecurity and making businesses run more efficiently. As engineers and academics continue to work to solve problems and make quantum technology more widely used, it could have a huge effect on society.